Seti I statue

By Jacqueline Engel

Seti I.

Egyptian Museum Caïro.

Menmaatre Seti I (or Sethos I as in Greek) was a pharaoh of the New Kingdom Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt, the son of Ramesses I and Sitre, and the father of Ramesses II.
As with all dates in Ancient Egypt, the actual dates of his reign are unclear, and various historians claim different dates, with 1294 BC to 1279 BC and 1290 BC to 1279 BC being the most commonly used by scholars today.

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God Atum as a bowman

By Jacqueline Engel

The god Atum as a bowman.

(Thanks to Robert Steven Bianchi)

Atum is usually depicted as a man wearing either the royal head-cloth or the dual white and red crown of Upper and Lower Egypt, reinforcing his connection with kingship. Sometimes he is also shown as a serpent, the form he returns to at the end of the creative cycle, and also occasionally as a mongoose, lion, bull, lizard, or ape.

Atum is one of the most important and frequently mentioned deities from earliest times, as evidenced by his prominence in the Pyramid Texts, where he is portrayed as both a creator and father to the king. Several writings contradict how Atum was brought into existence. Some state Atum was created by himself by saying his name, while others argue he came out from a blue lotus flower or an egg.

Egyptian Museum Cairo

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Mummy mask of a man

By Jacqueline Engel

This mask would have covered the head of the mummy of a an Egyptian man. It is highly decorated with images of protective amulets and gods to aid in the journey towards becoming a glorified spirit in the afterlife. Over the head spread the wings of a vulture while a winged sun disc, symbol of rebirth in the afterlife is on its forehead.

A mummy mask decorated with images of amulets to protect and deities to help and protect the deceased. Some beautiful details, in a pendant the four sons of Horus and on both sides a hawk headed god, the one on the left is holding the white-crown of Egypt. While the one on the right is holding the red crown of Egypt in its hands.

Mummy masks of the Ptolemaic and Roman periods often had gilded faces that reflected the association of the deceased with the gods. This mask has been molded over a core, with layers of mud and linen. They were used to protect and idealize the facial features of the deceased.

Roman Period, ca. 30 BC-395 CE. Gilded and painted cartonnage. From Meir. Now in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. JE28440

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Sky goddess Nut

By Jacqueline Engel

Sky goddess Nut on sarcophagus of Pharaoh Merenptah, Ramses II’s son.

Cairo, Egypt.

Merneptah or Merenptah (reigned July or August 1213 BC – May 2, 1203 BC) was the fourth pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt.

He ruled Egypt for almost ten years, from late July or early August 1213 BC until his death on May 2, 1203 BC, according to contemporary historical records.

He was the thirteenth son of Ramesses II, only coming to power because all his older brothers had died, including his full brother Khaemwaset or Khaemwase.

By the time he ascended to the throne, he was probably around seventy years old. He is perhaps best known for his victory stele, featuring the first known mention of the name Israel.

His throne name was Ba-en-re Mery-netjeru, which means “The Soul of Ra, Beloved of the Gods”.


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By Jacqueline Engel

Details of the coffin found in Valley of the Kings tomb KV 55.

Inside was believed to be the mummy of the heretic King Akhenaten.

The tomb, like the king it contained, is controversial and only made worse by its poor excavation by men who were capable of doing a much more professional job.

Add to the mess no photographs appeared to have been taken during the taking apart of the mummy found in this most outstanding royal coffin that had been found up to that time.

The missing cartouche inlay down the center of the lid was likely a jewel made of carnelian or glass to match the color scheme of the coffin. This inlay was not violently hacked at and likely was not destroyed during its removal. Instead, it appears to have been popped out with a sharp instrument which may have left its mark in the wood on the upper right side of the slot creating no damage to the delicate surrounding inlays.

Egyptian Museum Caïro

Two years of DNA testing and CAT scans on 16 royal mummies conducted by Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities, however, gave the firmest evidence to date that an unidentified mummy – known as KV55, after the number of the tomb where it was found in 1907 in Egypt’s Valley of the Kings – is Akhenaten’s.…

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Alabaster statue of Amenirdis I

By Jacqueline Engel

Details of alabaster statue of Amenirdis I

The Egyptian Museum, Cairo, Egypt.

Amenirdis I (throne name: Hatneferumut) was a God’s Wife of Amun during the 25th Dynasty of ancient Egypt.

She also held the priestly titles of Divine Adoratrice of Amun and God’s Hand. Biography She was a Kushite princess, the daughter of Pharaoh Kashta and Queen Pebatjma.

She is likely to have been the sister of pharaohs Shabaka and Piye.

Kashta arranged to have Amenirdis I adopted by the Divine Adoratrice of Amun, Shepenupet I, at Thebes as her successor.

This shows that Kashta already controlled Upper Egypt prior to the reign of Piye, his successor.

She ruled as high priestess approximately between 714 and 700 BCE, under the reigns of Shabaka and Shabataka, and she adopted Piye’s daughter Shepenupet II as her successor.

Upon her death, she was buried in a tomb in the grounds of Medinet Habu.

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