By Jacqueline Engel

Bronze figure of the lioness-headed goddess Wadjet, seated on a throne which is attached to a rectangular plinth. Remains of headdress consist of circular modius and uraeus.

Sides of throne have standard decoration; back bears incised falcon and papyrus-plants.

Hole through base-plate of plinth, interior of figure hollow.

Hands clenched on lap.

Late period. 600-350 BC

British Museum London.

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Mudstone statue of Ramses IV

By Jacqueline Engel

A kneeling figure of Ramses IV wearing the ‘nemes’ head-dress and ‘shendyt’ kilt. On his right shoulder is incised his prenomen, and his nomen is carved on his left shoulder. His prenomen is also incised in an oval in the centre of the girdle of his kilt.

The back pillar bears two columns of incised hieroglyphs giving the king’s names with epithets. Fragments of the king’s name and titles remain on the right and left sides of the base. At the top of the base there are the remains of inscriptions on the right and left sides. The front part of the statue including the front of the base, knees and hands of the figure are lost and have been restored in recent times with a ‘nw’-bowl in each hand. The rear of the base and the bottom of the back pillar have also been lost and recently restored. The nose and uraeus of the figure have been damaged. The surviving portion of the back pillar is worn in places. There are no traces of colour.

Height: 128.5 centimetres

Width: 50 centimetres

Depth: 32 centimetres

Weight: 70 kilograms


New Kingdom. 20Dyn. 1156-1150 BC.

British Museum London.

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By Jacqueline Engel

Luxor, Queen’s Palace Northwest of the Rammesseum
New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty
Ramses II (c. 1279-1213 BC)
Painted limestone
Hurgada Museum

Queen Meritamun was one of the daughters of Rameses II who became his Great Royal Wife after the death of her mother, Nefertari.

This statue clearly displays the ancient Egyptian sculptor’s mastery of his craft. This is especially clear in the intricate tresses of her elaborate blue wig, and in the symmetry and attention to detail to the beads of her wide collar.

There are two cobras on her forehead. The one on the left is wearing the White Crown of Upper Egypt, and the other the Red Crown of Lower Egypt.

They represent Nekhbet and Wadjet, the titular goddesses of Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

On her wig Meritamun is wearing a headdress whose base consist of Uraei, protective cobras with sun disks on their heads.

The Uraeus was a symbol af the power of the sun god.

Two tall feathers would have surmounted this base, but the top of the statue is unfortunately missing.

Meritamun holds a menat, a necklace that was closely associated with Hathor,the goddess of fertility, love and music.

It is composed of rows of beads with a counterpoise, which appropriately has the shape of Hathor, thus associating Meritamun with this goddess.

The name of Mentamun is not preserved on the back pillar of the statue, but the titles are very similar of those found on the back of a colossal statue of hers in Akhmim, which also depicts her with the same headdress.

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Mummy of the ram with gilded cartonage

By Jacqueline Engel

Mummy of the ram with gilded cartonage.

The ram mentioned to Khnum.

The principle god of the Triad of Elephantine.

Ptolemaie period


Nubian museum Aswan.

The Triad of Elephantine

Elephantine (Abu) was the ancient capital of the first nome of Upper Egypt.

It is a small island just north of the First Cataract of the Nile.

Khnemu was a ram-headed creator-god whose cult center was at the city of Elephantine.

Khnemu was said to have created all men and their kai from clay and straw.

He molded their bodies on a giant potter’s wheel.

In the Pyramid Texts of the Old Kingdom, the pharaoh was called the “son of Khnemu.”

Inscriptions at Elephantine detail the visit to the shrine of Khnemu at Elephantine by Pharaoh Djoser.

He was there to request the god’s help in ending a seven year long famine which had plagued Egypt.

At the Great Temple of Luxor, Khnemu was shown sculpting the body and ka of the pharaoh.

The queen had conceived the king following intercourse with Amon and Hathor brought the sculptures to life by giving them the ankh.

Rounding out the triad of Elephantine was Khnemu’s consort, Satet and their daughter, Anqet.

Satet, as the “Mistress of Elephantine”, was associated with the annual flooding of the Nile.

Anqet was the divine child of Satet and Khnemu and was seen as the guardian of Egypt’s southern frontier and the Nile cataracts.

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Necklace from Psusennes I’s tomb

By Jacqueline Engel

Tanis Treasures

Royal riches discovered during World War II rival those of Tutankhamun, but remain virtually unknown.

In the late 1930s and early 1940s, an entire complex of royal tombs was found intact at Tanis, yielding four gold masks, solid silver coffins, and spectacular jewelry, some even once worn by a pharaoh mentioned in the Bible. The treasures are one of the greatest archaeological discoveries of all time.

The Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt is usually classified as the first Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian Third Intermediate Period, lasting from 1069 BC to 945 BC.

Necklace from Psusennes I’s tomb with beads of lapis-lazuli.

Egyptian Museum Caïro

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Diorite statue of King Chephren (Khafre)

By Jacqueline Engel

Builder of the second pyramid.

Its remarkable state of preservation, its grandeur and the motif of the hawk, emblematical of his mythological ancestors, protecting his head with her outstretched wings, all combine to rank it first in the statuary of ancient Egypt.

It was found at the bottom of a wall near the gateway of his valley-temple ‘the temple of the sphinx’. Giza.

Egyptian Museum Caïro

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By Jacqueline Engel


The wife of Nahktmin.
Egyptian Museum Caïro.

Nakhtmin (also Minnakht) held the position of generalissimo during the reign of pharaohTutankhamun of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt.

His titles during the reign of Tutankhamun included “the true servant who is beneficial to his lord, the king’s scribe,” “the servant beloved of his lord,” “the Fan-bearer on the Right Side of the King,” and “the servant who causes to live the name of his lord.”

These titles were found on five ushabtis that Nakhtmin offered as funerary presents for pharaoh Tutankhamun

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King Hor

By Jacqueline Engel

King Hor.
(also know as Awybre)

Egyptian king of the 13th Dynasty. His reign was short (seven months).

Photo: Ka statue found in his tomb.

Egyptian Museum Caïro.

This wooden structure is a magnificent, well-preserved masterpiece.
It depicts the Ka statue of King Hor I /Au-ib-Re, which is clearly marked by the Ka hieroglyphic sign as two upraised arms topping the head. The Ka, or guardian spirit, had to survive in the statue to keep its owner alive.

The statue, found within its accompanying naos, or shrine, was covered with a fine layer of painted stucco. The king is sculpted wearing a three-part long wig, leaving the ears exposed. He wears a long, curved divine beard.

It is noteworthy that the sculptor successfully modeled the inlaid eyes to lend a lifelike appearance to this expressive face. The eyes are inlaid with rock crystal and quartz.

It seems that the Ka statue once held a scepter in its right hand and a staff in its left hand. The statue of the king was fixed to a wooden panel that could be taken out of the naos

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